Scientific and Technological Events from 1000 C.E. to 1499 C.E.

© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2009

Some of these entries need cross-checking against more citations.


Science events

Political events

ca 1000

Alhazen in Egypt uses observations to investigate Optics, explains reflection, considers curved mirrors, describes refraction, and estimates height of atmosphere.

Pope Silvester II (Gerbert) knew of Hindu-Arabic numerals but his work was not understood and ignored.  [1].

Europeans, from Iceland, discover Greenland and settle.


William successfully invades Britain.


Christian diocese founded in Greenland.

ca 1130

Arabic books being translated into Latin by Adelard of Bath (in England) and Robert of Chester (in Spain).

ca 1150

Angkor Wat is completed.

ca 1200

Universities were being formed at Oxford (before 1200), Padova (1222), Naples (1224), Cambridge (1226). The Sorbonne replaced Paris in 1253.

Grosseteste describes effect of lenses in his work on optics.


Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) introduces Arabic numerals to Europe in his Liber Abaci, re-awakening interest in mathematics and scientific knowledge in Europe


Genghis Khan becomes supreme ruler in Mongolia


King John signs Magna Carta.

ca 1250

Roger Bacon studies optics, measures characteristics of rainbows.


Marco Polo sets off to China with his father and uncle.


William of Occam completes his Summae Logicae stating the general rules of combining logical statements. Also known for his Razor.

ca 1430

Ulugh-Beg of Samarkand makes very accurate astronomical observations, creates trigonometric tables to 8 places accuracy, solves cubic equations numerically.

ca 1450

Gutenberg invents movable type printing press.

ca 1480

Leonardo da Vinci draws details of the anatomy of the human body, investigates geological phenomena, including explanation of how shells got into rocks, studies optics, invents many mechanical devices, etc.


Christopher Columbus sets out.


[1] D.E. Smith, History of Mathematics, vol I, 1923, reprinted by Dover

© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2009

Creative Commons License
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License (detail)