Scientific and Technological Events from 1000 B.C.E to 501 B.C.E.

© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2014

Some of these entries need cross-checking against more citations.


Science events

Political events

ca 885

Lycurgus defines laws for Sparta. Biography by Plutarch.

ca 800

Olmec hieroglyphs (Central America) show writing, but not deciphered.

Toggling harpoons, kayaks and hide boats invented at Bering Straits by the early Thule people. There is great doubt as to the precise dating of these developments.

Mixed thread spinning (llama, alpaca and cotton) to improve durability (Peru).

Iron agricultural tools common, spread by Celts in Central Europe.

Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

Earliest known written poems or songs (China).


Origin of Roman calendar at the legendary founding of Rome. [1]

Origin of Egyptian calendar. [2]

ca 700

Soldering invented (Peru).

Between 800 and 600, the Sulbasutras (India) were written, giving methods of calculating areas and constructing various figures – perhaps Pythagoras' theorem is known, but not clear whether the idea of proof is understood. First is written by Baudhayana.

Bantu start their migration from Cameroon, south and east.


Origin of Japanese calendar


Athenians mining lead and making pigments chemically from it.

ca 600

Irrigation system in Persia.

Bronze musical instruments (Denmark).

Phoenician sailors may have circumnavigated Africa.

ca 590

Thales of Miletus is credited with the earliest idea that phenomena may be explainable by a few hypotheses.

ca 580

Pythagoras born – d ca 500

ca 570 Anaximander draws first known map of the world.

ca 550

Pythagoras discovers irrational numbers.

Confucius born – d ca 480

Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) (ca 560 – ca 480)

Lao Zi (Lao Tzu) contemporary.

Mahavira (ca 590 – ca ??) (Jain)

ca 525

Aeschylus born – d ca 456


Cleisthenes forces some inherited power to be given to citizens – start of democracy

ca 500

Fired clay Nok culture sculptures in Nigeria.

Earth is a sphere (Pythagoreans)

Iron tools spread in Africa.

Cataract and skin grafts by Susrata (India).

Pythagoreans introduce the notion of proof by applying logical rules to postulates or axioms.

Hacataeus refines world map. His descriptions start idea of geography and history.

Use of coins expands through Greece.


[1]  [2] E.M. Reingold & N. Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations, Cambridge University Press, 2001

© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2009

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