© Copyright Andy
Pepperdine, 2007  2009
Some of these entries need crosschecking against more citations.
Date 
Science events 
Political events 

1705 
Halley makes his prediction of the return of the comet that bears his name; which it duly did in 1758. Hooke (posthumously) publishes Discourse on Earthquakes developing the notion of earth movements. 

1709 
Fahrenheit devises first thermometric scale using alcohol. In 1714 he switches to using mercury so that he can measure the boiling point of water. 

1710 
Halley discovers the proper motions of stars by comparing observations with Ptolemy's catalogue. 

1712 
Newcomen builds first practical steam engine near Dudley Castle. 

1717 
Lady Mary Montagu records the practice in Turkey of deliberately causing a disease in order to prevent a serious infection of it (inoculation). 

1725 
Catherine I (wife of Peter the Great) of Russia founds St. Petersburg Academy of Science, and employs many foreigners initially. 

1727 
Euler moves to St Petersburg and begins the most prolific mathematical career in history. A large portion of modern analytical notation is due to him, including f(n) for a function. He also made advances in number theory, elasticity, wave theory applied to acoustics, light, hydraulics and music, the motion of the moon, and especially convergence of infinite series. 

1735 
Linnaeus publishes Systema naturae 

1736 


1745 
Van Musschenbroek and von Kleist independently invent the Leiden jar, the first capacitor to store electrical energy. 

1752 
Franklin invents lightning conductor. 

ca 1754 
Black isolates the first pure gas (carbon dioxide). 

1759 
Wolff writes his thesis Theoria Generationis on the development of the body's organs from undifferentiated tissue. 

1765 
Watt improves the steam engine by adding a separate condenser to allow the engine to remain hot. Patents it in 1769. 

1773 
Lavoisier proposes a model for combustion, but did not finalise it until 1777. He showed how to use accurate measurements to make progress in chemistry. 

1774 
Scheele discovers oxygen but paper not published till 1777 after Priestley [1] 

USA proclaims its independence.  
1783 
The Montgolfier brothers build hot air balloon to give first manned flight. 

1788 
Hutton publishes his paper on how the Earth has been moulded by long slow processes. His ideas begin palaeontology. 

1791 
Galvani publishes De Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Musculari Commentarius introducing the idea of neural impulses being electrical in nature. Metric system proposed in France. 

1795/96 
Gauss, aged 18, finds most of his mathematical ideas and records them in a diary, foreshadowing nonEuclidean geometry, and many developments in number theory. 

1796 
Jenner tests his ideas on cow pox and smallpox. Publishes results in 1798, naming it vaccination. 

1798 
Count Rumford suggests heat is not a material substance, but a form of motion, noticing that heat is generated by the work of boring cannons. 

References
[1] J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, Oxford, 2001, p. 299
© Copyright Andy
Pepperdine, 2007  2009