Scientific and Technological Events from 1800 C.E. to 1849 C.E.

© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2010

Some of these entries need cross-checking against more citations.


Date

Science events

Political events

1800

Volta invents the electric pile, or battery.


1801

Gauss invents method of least squares to improve approximation to numerical questions, and used it to predict where the asteroid Ceres would be later in its orbit. Publishes the method in 1809.


1804

Seishu Hanaoka uses general anaesthesia (Japan) to operate on a breast cancer patient.


1808

Dalton publishes New System of Chemical Philosophy with the beginnings of theory on how elements combine chemically.


1809

Lamarck publishes Philosophie zoologique proposing for the first time that creatures can change by small amounts from one generation to the next.


1814

Stephenson invents steam locomotive, and installs first colliery rails for steam power.


1815

William Smith publishes the first comprehensive geological map of Britain.


1820

Ørsted publishes his discovery of electro-magnetism, but has no explanation.


1821

Faraday demonstrates electric motor and generator. This work was a direct result of his hearing of Ørsted's work and finding the linking behaviour between the two forces.


1822

Babbage demonstrates the first "difference engine" to show what might be done mechanically to compute mathematical tables.


1824

Carnot describes the basis for the limits of the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.


1825

Bolyai writes up his investigations of non-Euclidean geometry.


1828

Wöhler accidentally makes urea ushering in biochemistry. He and Liebig find that chemicals with the same number and type of atoms may not behave the same, and suggest it is the arrangement of atoms that is important.


1829

Lobatchewsky independently creates non-Euclidean geometry.


1830

Lyell develops the ideas of the processes that change the rocks and move fossils in The Principles of Geology.


1832
Galois dies leaving among his papers a proof of how to determine whether an algebraic equation has an explicit solution, and ushering in the theory of groups. Discovered by Liouville and published in 1846.

1834

Babbage designs the first computing machine with all the attributes of a modern computer, but the engineering was beyond the capabilities of the time.


1838

Morse demonstrates the ability to transmit messages by wire, but the first telegraph message is sent in 1844.


1839

Schleiden and Schwann announce their theory that all living tissue is composed of cells.


1840

Agassiz propounds his theory that there had been an Ice Age in Étude sur les Glaciers.


1843

Joule establishes the relationship between heat and work done, thus opening up the quantitative theory of thermodynamics.

Hamilton discovers the non-commutative operators to define the quaternions.



References


© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2010

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