© Copyright Andy
Pepperdine, 2007  2010
Some of these entries need crosschecking against more citations.
Date 
Science events 
Political events 

1800 
Volta invents the electric pile, or battery. 

1801 
Gauss invents method of least squares to improve approximation to numerical questions, and used it to predict where the asteroid Ceres would be later in its orbit. Publishes the method in 1809. 

1804 
Seishu Hanaoka uses general anaesthesia (Japan) to operate on a breast cancer patient. 

1808 
Dalton publishes New System of Chemical Philosophy with the beginnings of theory on how elements combine chemically. 

1809 
Lamarck publishes Philosophie zoologique proposing for the first time that creatures can change by small amounts from one generation to the next. 

1814 
Stephenson invents steam locomotive, and installs first colliery rails for steam power. 

1815 
William Smith publishes the first comprehensive geological map of Britain. 

1820 
Ørsted publishes his discovery of electromagnetism, but has no explanation. 

1821 
Faraday demonstrates electric motor and generator. This work was a direct result of his hearing of Ørsted's work and finding the linking behaviour between the two forces. 

1822 
Babbage demonstrates the first "difference engine" to show what might be done mechanically to compute mathematical tables. 

1824 
Carnot describes the basis for the limits of the efficiency of an ideal heat engine. 

1825 
Bolyai writes up his investigations of nonEuclidean geometry. 

1828 
Wöhler accidentally makes urea ushering in biochemistry. He and Liebig find that chemicals with the same number and type of atoms may not behave the same, and suggest it is the arrangement of atoms that is important. 

1829 
Lobatchewsky independently creates nonEuclidean geometry. 

1830 
Lyell develops the ideas of the processes that change the rocks and move fossils in The Principles of Geology. 

1832 
Galois
dies leaving among his papers a proof of how to determine whether an
algebraic equation has an explicit solution, and ushering in the theory
of groups. Discovered by Liouville and published in 1846. 

1834 
Babbage designs the first computing machine with all the attributes of a modern computer, but the engineering was beyond the capabilities of the time. 

1838 
Morse demonstrates the ability to transmit messages by wire, but the first telegraph message is sent in 1844. 

1839 
Schleiden and Schwann announce their theory that all living tissue is composed of cells. 

1840 
Agassiz propounds his theory that there had been an Ice Age in Étude sur les Glaciers. 

1843 
Joule
establishes the relationship between heat and work done, thus
opening up the quantitative theory of thermodynamics. Hamilton discovers the noncommutative operators to define the quaternions. 

References
© Copyright Andy
Pepperdine, 2007  2010