Scientific and Technological Events from 1850 C.E. to 1899 C.E.

© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2010

Some of these entries need cross-checking against more citations.


Science events

Political events

Clausius explicitly gave the first and second Laws of Thermodynamics.


Elevator is invented by Otis with a safety device, opening it up to use by people.


Ferrel publishes An essay on the winds and currents of the ocean giving the first explanation of the prevailing winds.


Darwin publishes On The Origin of Species describing the theory of evolution.

J. S. Mill publishes On Liberty.

c. 1860

Sorby emphasises that it is microscopic structure that determines the nature of materials and rocks.


Lenoir demonstrates the internal combustion engine, using a gaseous fuel.


Lincoln gives the Gettysburg Address (and transcription)


Pasteur publicises his theory of microbes causing putrefaction and later developed into a theory of disease.


Mendel publishes Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (in English) giving the first clear laws of heredity.


Maxwell formulates his statistical theory of gases and thermodynamics

Nobel discovers mixing silica with nitroglycerine creates a malleable relative safe explosive he calls dynamite, and patents it.


Mendeleev presents a paper introducing his periodic table of elements, allowing predictions about elements not then discovered.


Maxwell publishes his Electricity and Magnetism giving his field equations to link electricity and magnetism.


Woodward and Evans patent a light bulb, later sold to Edison who improved it to make it practical.


Daimler patents an improved Otto engine and makes it light enough to be used as a power source on a bicycle.

Golgi publishes a paper on the fine structure of the brain using a technique he developed in 1875 for showing detail within cells.


Williams reportedly is the first surgeon to open the chest cavity and operate on a heart successfully.


Marconi sends a wireless signal over 1½ miles and receives it. He gets a patent in 1896.

Röntgen discovers X-rays and takes a photograph of a hand, although he does not know what they are.


Thomson announces the discovery of the electron as part of an atom.


© Copyright Andy Pepperdine, 2007 - 2010

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